The history of the Northern region as part of the modern state of Ghana started with the push into the interior by British soldiers garrisoned in the coastal forts and castles.
The advance into the interior by British soldiers garrisoned in coastal forts and castles began the history of the Northern region as part of the contemporary state of Ghana. The goal was to capture and colonize the region that the European powers had carved off for the British at the Berlin Conference in 1844. The task had been completed by 1900. The Volta River in the south marked the British colony’s eastern border, which stretched north along the Daka River.
Until Germany’s defeat in World War I and the loss of all of its African territories, the northern half of the country was a large region known as the Northern Territories. According to Bening (1999), the Coussey Committee advised in 1949 that the Protectorate of the Northern Territories, a portion of Togoland’s Northern Section, and the Krachi District be combined into one area. This was due to the close ties that existed between the peoples of the two regions.
This idea was fulfilled in 1952, and the Protectorate and the Northern Section of Togoland became the Northern Region of Ghana in March 1957, after the country gained formal independence. The Upper Region was created from the Northern Region in 1960.
The Northern Region, which covers an area of around 70,383 square kilometers, is Ghana’s largest region by land area. It is bordered on the north by the Upper East and Upper West Regions, on the south by the Brong Ahafo and Volta Regions, and on the west by two neighboring nations, the Republic of Togo and La Cote d’Ivoire.
Except for the Gambaga escarpment in the northeast corner and the western corridor, the ground is generally flat. The Black and White Volta rivers, as well as their tributaries, the Rivers Nasia and Daka, drain the region.
According to the 2010 Population and Housing Census, the region’s population is 2,479,461, with 1,229,887 men and 1,249,574 women.
Guinea Savanna grassland covers the Northern Region. Grassland dominates the landscape, particularly savanna with clusters of drought-resistant plants like baobabs and acacias. The dry season lasts from January through March. The rainy season lasts roughly from July to December, with yearly rainfall ranging from 750 to 1050 mm (30 to 40 inches). The hottest days are at the conclusion of the dry season, and the coldest is in December and January. Between December and the beginning of February, however, the scorching Harmattan wind from the Sahara blows frequently. Temperatures can range from 14 degrees Celsius (59 degrees Fahrenheit) at night to 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit) during the day.